[50], Despite continuing attacks by insurgent forces against targets throughout the Portuguese African territories, the economies of both Portuguese Angola and Mozambique had actually improved each year of the conflict, as had the economy of Portugal proper. However, controversies over the MFA coup of 25 April 1974 and the decisions made by coup leaders remain to this day. Tetteh Hormeku – Programme Officer with Third World Network's Africa Secretariat in Accra, Third World Resurgence No.89, January 1998, A «GUERRA» 3º Episódio – «Violência do lado Português». The Portuguese finally entered into direct relations with the Mwenemutapa in the 1560s. Portuguese Military Victory in Angola and Mozambique; Militarily stalemate in Guinea-Bissau Portugal 148,000 European Portuguese regular troops 40,000–60,000 guerrillas[3][circular reference] +30,000 in Angola[3][circular reference] The Portuguese Colonial War (Portuguese: Guerra Colonial Portuguesa Others did not share this view, including its main architect,[71] troops, and officials who had participated on both sides of the operation, including high ranked elements from the FRELIMO guerrillas. [41] The only exception was Portuguese Guinea, where PAIGC guerrilla operations, strongly supported by neighbouring allies like Guinea and Senegal, were largely successful in liberating and securing large areas of Portuguese Guinea. [15] A level of social order and economic development comparable to what had existed under Portuguese rule, including during the period of the Colonial War, became the goal of the independent territories.[17]. The official feeling of the Portuguese state, despite all this, was the same: Portugal had inalienable and legitimate rights over the colonies and this was what was transmitted through the media and through the state propaganda. They were also demoralized by the steady growth of PAIGC liberation sympathizers and recruits among the rural population. By 1973, the territory was mostly under Portuguese control. Reviewed Work(s): Counterinsurgency in Africa. It had a profound impact on Portugal – thousands of young men avoided conscription by emigrating illegally, mainly to France and the US. Mines and other booby traps were one of the principal weapons used by the insurgents against Portuguese mechanized forces to great effect, who typically patrolled the mostly unpaved roads of their territories using motor vehicles and armored scout cars. Under the Salazar regime, a military draft required all males to serve three years of obligatory military service; many of those called up to active military duty were deployed to combat zones in Portugal's African overseas provinces. The Mozambican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the guerrilla forces of the Mozambique Liberation Front or FRELIMO (Frente de Libertação de Moçambique), and Portugal.The war officially started on September 25, 1964, and ended with a ceasefire on September 8, 1974, resulting in a negotiated independence in 1975. A report from Battalion No. [78] After the Netherlands embargoed further sales of the AR-10, the paratroop battalions were issued a collapsible-stock version of the regular m/961 (G3) rifle, also in 7.62×51mm NATO caliber. The insurgents called for local Bantu farmworkers and villagers to join them, unleashing an orgy of violence and destruction. In Mozambique special units were also used by the Portuguese Armed Forces: The Organization of African Unity (OAU) was founded May 1963. None of the newly independent ex-Portuguese African states made any significant economic progress in the following decades, and political progress in terms of democratic processes and protection of individual human rights was either minimal or nonexistent. In November 1972, both movements were recognized by the OAU in order to promote their merger. Its guerrilla fighters attacked the Portuguese headquarters in Tite, located to the south of Bissau, the capital, near the Corubal river. But in the time of war the ex-combatants remembered rain further intensifying the painful conditions of … In the transport role, the Portuguese Air Force originally used the Junkers Ju 52, followed by the Nord Noratlas, the C-54 Skymaster, and the C-47 Skytrain (all of these aircraft were also used for Paratroop drop operations). General Spínola was invited to assume the office of President, but resigned a few months later after it became clear that his desire to set up a system of federalized home rule for the African territories was not shared by the rest of the MFA, who wanted an immediate end to the war (achievable only by granting independence to the provinces of Portuguese Africa). Instead, most infantryman used their rifles to fire individual shots. Many native Angolans rose to positions of command, though of junior rank. However, being the only truly organized opposition movement, the PCP had to play two roles. Unable to broker a new compromise, in November 1975 Portugal's last African High Commissioner Rosa Coutinho hauled down his nation's flag and departed Angola. The prevalent Portuguese and international historical approach considers the Portuguese Colonial War as was perceived at the time: a single conflict fought in three separate theaters of operations: Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique (sometimes including the 1954 Indian Annexation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and 1961 Indian Annexation of Goa) rather than a number of separate conflicts as the emergent African countries aided each other during the war. Several magazines and newspapers were created, such as Cadernos Circunstância, Cadernos Necessários, Tempo e Modo, and Polémica that supported this view. [62], In response, Portuguese Armed Forces instituted a harsh policy of reciprocity by torturing and massacring rebels and protesters. Strict qualification criteria ensured that less than one per cent of black Mozambicans became full Portuguese citizens.[33]. The war in the Portuguese overseas territories of Africa was increasingly unpopular in Portugal itself as the people got weary of war and balked at its ever-rising expense. A Guerra - Colonial - do Ultramar - da Libertação, 1st Season (Portugal 2007, director: A Guerra - Colonial - do Ultramar - da Libertação, 2nd Season (Portugal 2009, director: Joaquim Furtado, RTP), Dávila, Jerry. From 1965, Portugal began to purchase the Fiat G.91 to deploy to its African overseas territories of Mozambique, Guinea and Angola in the close-support role. Native African troops, although widely deployed were initially employed in subordinate roles as enlisted troops or noncommissioned officers. Historical context: war and peace in Mozambique, Independence redux in postsocialist Mozambique, Portugal's First Domino: ‘Pluricontinentalism’ and Colonial War in Guiné-Bissau, 1963–1974, Catching up to the European core: Portuguese economic growth, 1910–1990, US intervention in Africa: Through Angolan eyes, O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MOÇAMBIQUE E A PROMOÇÃO DAS SUAS POPULAÇÕES – SITUAÇÃO EM 1974, "Algunas armas utilizadas en la guerra Colonial Portuguesa 1961–1974", Arquivo Electrónico: Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho, " Western Europe's First Communist Country?". [70] The Operation "Nó Górdio" (Gordian Knot Operation) - conducted in 1970 and commanded by Portuguese Brigadier General Kaúlza de Arriaga - a conventional-style operation to destroy the guerrilla bases in the north of Mozambique, was the major military operation of the Portuguese Colonial War. Thus, initial military operations were conducted using World War II radios, the old m/937 7.92mm Mauser rifle, the Portuguese m/948 9mm FBP submachine gun, and the equally elderly German m/938 7.92mm (MG 13) Dreyse and Italian 8×59mm RB m/938 (Breda M37) machine guns. Much of the initial offensive operations against Angolan UPA and MPLA insurgents was undertaken by four companies of Caçadores Especiais (Special Hunter) troops skilled in light infantry and antiguerrilla tactics, and who were already stationed in Angola at the outbreak of fighting. Demobilized by the Portuguese authorities and abandoned to their fate, a total of 7,447 black African soldiers who had served in Portuguese native commando forces and militia were summarily executed by the PAIGC after Portuguese forces ceased hostilities. [75][76] In the days before attached grenade launchers became standard, Portuguese paratroopers frequently resorted to the use of ENERGA anti-tank rifle grenades fired from their AR-10 rifles. Afonso, Aniceto and Gomes, Carlos de Matos, Kaúlza de Arriaga (General), Lições de estratégia de curso de altos comandos – 1966/67 (Lessons Of Strategy in the Course of High Command – 1966/67), Vol. However, they also used small arms of U.S. manufacture (such as the .45 M1 Thompson submachine gun), along with British, French, and German weapons came from neighboring countries sympathetic to the rebellion. As the war went on, an increasing number of native Africans served as noncommissioned or commissioned officers by the 1970s, including such officers as Captain (later Lt. The meanings that the combatants attributed to their war experiences then and now are the book’s analytical focus. This transformation did, however, take seven years to complete and only took its final form in 1968. In the 17 th and 18 th century, Angola became a major Portuguese slave-trading area. In Guinea, rival Europeans grabbed much of the trade (mainly slaves) while local African rulers confined the Portuguese to the coast. Portuguese colonial administrators were handicapped by their policies in education, which largely barred indigenous Africans from adequate education until well after the outbreak of the insurgency. situated in the "hot" warzone (Guinea, Tete Province in Mozambique or eastern Angola). [40] The existence of the draft and likelihood of combat in African counterinsurgency operations would over time result in a sharp increase in emigration by Portuguese men seeking to avoid such service. From war campaigns to peacekeeping operations, The Portuguese at War presents an overview of the conflicts, wars and revolutions in which Portugal was involved from the nineteenth century to the present day. Portugal had employed regular native troops (companhias indigenas) in its colonial army since the early 19th century. The Destruction of a Nation: United States' Policy Towards Angola Since 1945, George Wright, Pluto Press, 1997. [9][10][11] This migration is regarded as one of the largest peaceful migrations in the world's history. [26] With this support, the Congo-Léopoldville-based UPA attacked Portuguese settlers and Africans living in Angola from bases in the Congo. TheInfoList.com - (Portuguese_Colonial_War) The bPortuguese Colonial War/b (a href= The universities played a key role in the spread of this position. Several personalities in Portuguese society, including one of the most idolized sports stars in Portuguese football history, a black football player from Portuguese East Africa named Eusébio, were other examples of efforts towards assimilation and multiracialism in the Post-World War II period. [13] Angola and Mozambique established state-planned economies after independence,[14] and struggled with inefficient judicial systems and bureaucracies,[14] corruption,[14][15][16] and poverty and unemployment. The war was a decisive ideological struggle in Lusophone Africa, surrounding nations, and mainland Portugal. The most infamous reprisal occurred in Guinea-Bissau. [108], In 1973, on the eve of the revolution, Portugal's per capita GDP had reached 56 percent of the EC-12 average. Devastating civil wars followed in Angola and Mozambique, which lasted several decades, claimed millions of lives, and resulted in large numbers of displaced refugees. [63] Individual Portuguese counterinsurgency commanders such as Second Lieutenant Fernando Robles of the 6ª Companhia de Caçadores Especiais became well known throughout the country for their ruthlessness in hunting down insurgents.[64]. The Portuguese Colonial War (Portuguese: Guerra Colonial), also known in Portugal as the Overseas War (Guerra do Ultramar) or in the former colonies as the War of liberation (Guerra de Libertação), was fought between Portugal's military and the emerging nationalist movements in Portugal's African colonies between 1961 and 1975. [52] Nevertheless, the costs of continuing the wars in Africa imposed a heavy burden on Portugal's resources; by the 1970s, the country was spending 40 per cent of its annual budget on the war effort. If the insurgents planned to confront the Portuguese openly, one or two heavy machine guns would be sited to sweep the ditch and other likely areas of cover. The Portuguese regime was overthrown by a … The Portuguese Army steadily pushed the UPA back across the border into Congo-Kinshasa in a brutal counteroffensive that also displaced some 150,000 Bakongo refugees, taking control of Pedra Verde, the UPA's last base in northern Angola, on 20 September 1961. After the electoral fraud of 1958, Humberto Delgado formed the Independent National Movement (Movimento Nacional Independente – MNI) that, in October 1960, agreed that there was a need to prepare the people in the colonies, before giving them the right of self-determination. In Angola, construction of a railway from Luanda to Malanje, in the fertile highlands, was started in 1885.[20]. The fighting later spread to Niassa, Tete in central Mozambique. [13][98][99] Resentments over economic difficulties caused by failed government policies, the general disenfranchisement of political opponents, and widespread corruption at the highest levels of government eroded the initial optimism present at independence. [40], General Spínola was dismissed by Dr. Marcelo Caetano, the last prime minister of Portugal under the Estado Novo regime, over the general's publicly announced desire to open negotiations with the PAIGC in Portuguese Guinea. The Monumento aos Combatentes do Ultramar (Monument to the Overseas Combatants) is an important war memorial which pays homage to all those who died in the Portuguese Colonial War which ran from 1961 to 1974 and it is the Portuguese equivalent of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. (both honour the people who died in controversial wars). In Portugal, government budgets increased significantly during the war years. Nov 7, 2020 - Explore coal1989's board "Portuguese colonial wars" on Pinterest. In Mozambique, reached in the 15th century by Portuguese sailors searching for a maritime spice trade route, the Portuguese settled along the coast and made their way into the hinterland as sertanejos (backwoodsmen). Like many regional African conflicts during the late twentieth century, the Mozambican Civil War possessed local dynamics but was also exacerbated greatly by the polarizing effects of Cold War politics. [45][46] Overall, the increasing success of Portuguese counterinsurgency operations and the inability or unwillingness of guerrilla forces to destroy the economy of Portugal's African territories was seen as a victory for the Portuguese government policies. According to historical researchers like José Freire Antunes, U.S. President John F. Kennedy[29] sent a message to President António de Oliveira Salazar advising Portugal to abandon its African colonies shortly after the outbreak of violence in 1961. [54] During the protests, African workers burned their identification cards and attacked Portuguese traders. 276–278, Susan Rose-Ackerman, "Corruption in the Wake of Domestic National Conflict" in, "Things are going well in Angola. The conflict started in Angola in 1961, at a time when colonialism was severely condemned internationally, and ceased in 1974. By the 1950s, the European mainland Portuguese territory was inhabited by a society that was poorer and had a much higher illiteracy rate than the average Western European societies or those of North America. [38] General António de Spínola, by contrast, appealed for a more political and psycho-social use of African soldiers. Photos of Africans killed by the UPA, which included photos of decapitated civilians, men, women and children of both white and black ethnicity, would later be displayed in the UN by Portuguese diplomats. Mobile ground operations consisted of patrol sweeps by armored car and reconnaissance vehicles. Slavery had officially ended in Portuguese Africa, but the plantations were worked on a system of paid serfdom by African labour composed of the large majority of ethnic Africans who did not have resources to pay Portuguese taxes and were considered unemployed by the authorities. Portugal commenced Operação Mar Verde or Operation Green Sea on 22 November 1970 in an attempt to overthrow Ahmed Sékou Touré, the leader of the Guinea-Conakry and staunch PAIGC ally, to capture the leader of the PAIGC, Amílcar Cabral, and to cut off supply lines to PAIGC insurgents. Some analysts see the "Botelho Moniz coup" of 1961 (also known as A Abrilada) against the Portuguese government and backed by the U.S. administration,[25] as the beginning of this rupture, the origin of a lapse on the part of the regime to keep up a unique command center, an armed force prepared for threats of conflict in the colonies. General Spínola began a series of civil and military reforms designed to weaken PAIGC control of the Guinea and rollback insurgent gains. The campaign in Angola saw the development and initial deployment of several unique counter-insurgency forces: Read more about this topic:  Portuguese Colonial War, The Combatants, Angola, “The truth is that literature, particularly fiction, is not the pure medium we sometimes assume it to be. The guerrillas' AK-47 rifles and such variants were highly thought of by many Portuguese soldiers, as they were more mobile than the m/961 (G3), while permitting the user to deliver a heavy volume of automatic fire at the closer ranges typically encountered in bush warfare. Within the next few weeks Portuguese military forces pushed the MPLA out of Luanda northeast into the Dembos region, where the MPLA established the "1st Military Region". The Navy also used Portuguese civilian cruisers as troop transports, and drafted Portuguese Merchant Navy personnel to man ships carrying troops and material and into the Marines. The attempted coup d'état failed, though the Portuguese managed to destroy several PAIGC ships and free hundreds of Portuguese prisoners of war (POWs) at several large POW camps. In reality, the relation of mainland Portuguese to their overseas possessions was that of colonial administrator to a subservient colony. In 1961 the Portuguese had 79,000 in arms – 58,000 in the Army, 8,500 in the Navy and 12,500 in the Air force (Cann, 1997). At this time Portuguese forces also adopted unorthodox means of countering the insurgents, including attacks on the political structure of the nationalist movement. The OAU established a committee based in Dar es Salaam, with representatives from Ethiopia, Algeria, Uganda, Egypt, Tanzania, Zaire, Guinea, Senegal, Nigeria, to support African liberation movements. In this region, unlike Guinea, the trade remained largely in Portuguese hands. [59], On March 15, 1961, the UPA led by Holden Roberto launched an incursion into the Bakongo region of northern Angola with 4,000–5,000 insurgents. [7] By 1973, the war had become increasingly unpopular due to its length and financial costs, the worsening of diplomatic relations with other United Nations members, and the role it had always played as a factor of perpetuation of the entrenched Estado Novo regime and the non-democratic status quo. The expenses were divided into ordinary and extraordinary ones; the latter were the main factor in the huge increase in the military budget. In these situations the submachine gun, hand grenade or rifle-launched grenade often became a more useful weapon than the rifle. Response to it is affected by things other than its own intrinsic quality; by a curiosity or lack of it about the people it deals with, their outlook, their way of life.”—Vance Palmer (1885–1959). Defensive operations, where soldiers were dispersed in small numbers to guard critical buildings, farms, or infrastructure were particularly devastating to the regular Portuguese infantry, who became vulnerable to guerrilla attacks outside of populated areas by the forces of the PAIGC. Other indicators like GDP as percentage of Western Europe would indicate that Portugal was rapidly catching up to its European neighbors. Throughout the period Portugal faced increasing dissent, arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions imposed by the international community. A proxy war is defined to be "a war fought between groups of smaller countries that each represent the interests of other larger powers, and may have help and support from these". Decolonization events, this system gradually declined psycho-social use of African anti-colonial movements for. 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